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Welcome to the Early and Forced Marriage Knowledge Bank 

The Early and Forced Marriage (EFM) Knowledge Bank provides excerpts from EFM and Modern Slavery Courses and related articles, news and information. 
 
If you have any queries or require advice regarding EFM Practice contact us and we will do whatever we can to assist
 
Forcing someone to marry is a criminal offence. 
It is child abuse, domestic abuse and often involves threats and actual violence. 
It can affect women and girls but also men and boys. 
In 2013, the Forced Marriage Unit (FMU) received calls in relation to a possible or actual forced marriage in over 1300 cases. 
Forced marriage still remains a hidden practice as many cases remain unreported. 

Arranged Marriage  

In arranged marriages, the families of both spouses take a leading role in arranging the marriage, but the choice of whether or not to accept the arrangement still remains with the prospective spouses. 
This is clearly different from a forced marriage. 
 

Forced Marriage 

In forced marriage, one or both spouses do not consent to the marriage but are coerced into it. Duress can include physical, psychological, financial, sexual and emotional pressure. 
In the cases of vulnerable adults who lack the capacity to consent to marriage, coercion is not required for a marriage to be forced. 
The provision of consent is essential within all marriages – only the spouses themselves will know if they their consent is provided freely. 
 
Forced marriage is a criminal offence in its own right, as is a breach of a Forced Marriage Prevention Order (FMPO) but it may incorporate other offences for example: 
Harassment: 
Kidnap; 
Blackmail; 
False imprisonment; 
Common assault, actual/grievous bodily harm; 
Threats to kill; 
Child abduction; 
Rape or other sexual offences 
Immigration offences; 
Fraud; 
Marriage offences; 
People trafficking; and 
Controlling, causing or inciting prostitution.  

Honour Based Violence  

So called 'honour based violence' is a crime or incident, which has or may have been "committed to protect or defend the honour of the family and/or community" 
The Crown Prosecution Service seeks to record any criminal offence of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) committed as so called honour crime. 
Cases are prosecuted for the specific offence committed, e.g. common assault, GBH, harassment, kidnap, rape, threats to kill, murder. These crimes are identified as "honour crimes" as well as by the named offence. 
 
Additionally, honour based crimes could include: 
Attempted murder 
Manslaughter 
Procuring an abortion 
Encouraging or assisting suicide 
Conspiracy to murder 
Conspiracy to commit a variety of assaults. 

Forced Marriage UK Statistics 2015  Source: Foreign & Commonwealth Office and Home Office - Forced Marriage Unit  

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